This is the story of my Y chromosome ancestry from Africa to Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia. Then the story goes back west to Central Asia, Western Asia, and Southwest Asia, and Western Europe. From there, the story goes on to the British Isles, including England, Ulster, Argyll, and back to Ulster. The story ends in North America: Ontario, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Texas, and Connecticut.
In 2008, Daniela Moneta started a Biggins Y-DNA project. Daniela, a professional genealogist, started the project as part of her efforts to learn more about her ancestor Eleanor Biggins who was born in 1798 in Middlesex, England. Daniela found my Biggins/Beggan Irish Roots on the Internet and asked me to have my Y-DNA tested. I was skeptical because of the cost and doubtful that I would learn anything, but my wife Marilyn encouraged me to do it. I learned a lot, but I am not sure that Daniela did.
In 2009, I received an email from Josiah McGuire. He said that surnames we have matches with are said to descend from "Colla da Chrioch" as stated in the Irish Pedigrees by O'Hart. He started the Clan Colla Null 425 Project at FTDNA to attract Clan Colla descendants. I agreed to be a co-administrator and was the first one to join the new Clan Colla project. I started a Web page called DNA of the Three Collas. We then found two geneticists with our Clan Colla DNA and asked them to join us in administering the Clan Colla project: Patrick McMahon who had studied genetics at Trinity College Dublin and Tom Roderick who was on the Emeritus Staff at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, and was a member of the Human Genome Project.
Y-chromosome DNA can do several things for the genealogist:
This story addresses the deep ancestry of Peter Biggins through the use of Y-chromosome DNA, tested by Family Tree DNA. Y-DNA is passed down from father to son, much like surnames. By testing a living male, we can learn about the deep ancestry of his paternal line. This testing also applies to his sons and their sons, his brothers and their sons, and his paternal male cousins.
- Y-DNA can sometimes extend a family tree back a few generations. This has not happened for me yet, but I have found a group of ten men with the same or similar last name who have a unique Y-DNA mutation, a SNP named R-BY3164. Four have found the SNP in Big Y SNP testing. All have the STR predictors of the SNP: 19=15, 413b=24, 561=16.
- In some cases, Y-DNA can tell us which tribe or sept our ancestors came from in the last one or two thousand years. This has happened for me. I share the Y-DNA (SNP Z3000) of men with a combination of surnames that ancient pedigrees trace back to the Three Collas, who lived in 4th century Ulster.
- Y-DNA tells us our male ancestry back to "Adam."
- DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical consisting of a sequence of hundreds of millions of nucleotides found in the nuclei of cells. It contains the genetic information about an individual. In 1953, they discovered it was shaped like a double-stranded helix. In 2003, they finished first sequencing of the human genome.
- Y-DNA. A portion of the human genome that only males have, called the Y-chromosome.
- SNP. A single nucleotide polymorphism, a mutation in Y-DNA that happens when a single nucleotide (A, T, G, or C) in the genome sequence is altered. For me, at position 8556635, an A has mutated to a C. If someone else has this mutation, there is a good chance we share a common ancestor.
- Haplogroup. A haplogroup is a SNP shared by two or more testers. Family Tree DNA discovered in 2015 that I shared the A>C mutation at position 8556635 with another person named Bigham and named the mutation BY3164. Haplogroups allow the creation of a tree with branches, like a family tree in genealogy. Major branches are representd by the letters A through T. See Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, which includes a Map of proposed prehistoric migrations of Y chromosome bearing humans.
- STR. An STR is a Short Tandem Repeat, or count of repeats at a physical location on the chromosome. STRs are used to predict SNPs and haplogroups.
My Y-chromosome ancestry is represented by male ancestors who experienced Y-chromosome mutations, or SNPs, over many years. The years for SNPs before P312 are from the YFull R1b Tree. The years for SNPs P312 and later can be found in Alex Williamson's Big Tree. Data is as of August 2019.
Peter's Patrilineal Pedigree: 41 Branches from Adam
|Real Rough Year and Place
- A0-T-L1085/L1090 ↓
- A1-P305/V168 ↓
|Haplogroup A's oldest sub-clades are exclusively found in Central-Northwest Africa, where it, and consequently Y-chromosomal Adam, is believed to have originated. The clade has also been observed at notable frequencies in certain populations in Ethiopia, as well as some Pygmy groups in Central Africa. Branches to|
- BT-M91/M42 ↓
|Ancestral to all non-African haplogroups. Branches to
|Branches to |
- C-M130. Native Americans have this DNA, as do Siberians and Australian Aboriginals..
- F-M89 ↓
- GHIJK-F1329 ↓
- G-M201, found in the Caucasus region
- H-L901, found in the Romani people and the Khmer people
- IJK-L15 ↓
- I haplogroup, formed around 33000 BC, represents up to one-fifth of the male population of Europe, being the continent's second major Y-DNA haplogroup behind haplogroup R. Our son-in-law Roger Byrne has I haplogroup DNA: I-M223, M284, L126, Y4751, BY3619, Y63570, based on his Y-DNA test at Family Tree DNA. Roger's great grandfather was William Byrne, born in Albany, New York. I-M284 is one of the most ancient Y lineages in Scotland, but it is also found in Ireland.
- J haplogroup, J1 M267 and J2 M172, includes a large portion of contemporary Jewish Kohanim. According to the Bible, the ancestor of the Kohanim was Aaron, the brother of Moses
- K-M9 ↓
- K-M2308. Branches to O-M175, which is very common among males in China, Korea, and Southeast Asia
- K-P331 ↓
- P-P295 ↓ haplogroup
Maritime Southeast Asia
|Branches to P1, then
- P-M45 haplogroup ↓
East Asia/Southeast Asia
|Branches to P1, then
- Q haplogroup. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans. Most of them are descendants of the major founding groups who migrated from Asia into the Americas by crossing the Bering Strait approximately 17,000 to 31,700 years ago
- R-M207/Y453 haplogroup ↓
Central Asia, South Asia, or Siberia
|Originated in North Asia just before the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500-19,000 years ago). This haplogroup has been identified in the remains of a 24,000 year-old boy from the Altai region, in south-central Siberia|
Central Asia, South Asia, or Southwest Asia
|The majority of representatives of haplogroup R are in its branches|
- R1a-M420. Distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia. There is a significant presence in peoples of Scandinavian descent, with highest levels in Norway and Iceland, where between 20 and 30% of men are in R1a1a M17/M198 (6600 BC). Vikings and Normans may have also carried the R1a1a lineage westward; accounting for at least part of the small presence in the British Isles. McDonalds descended from Lords of the Isles had previously been thought by some to be descended from Colla Uais, but a group descended from the Lords of the Isles, including chiefs and chieftans, has been found by Clan Donald DNA project to have R1a Norse DNA. There are, nevertheless, a significant number of McDonalds with Clan Colla DNA, some of whom are descended from Colla da Crioch, but most of whom appear to be descended from Colla Uais
- R1b-M343 ↓
Western Asia or Central Asia
|R1b haplogroup. The point of origin of R1b is thought to lie in Western Eurasia, most likely in Western Asia. It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe. R1b also reaches high frequencies in the Americas and Australia, due largely to immigration from Western Europe. See Eupedia R1b. Family Tree DNA: R1b M343 Project
|Found in two skeletons from prehistoric Europe: a male from the Mesolithic Samara culture (a pre-Yamna people who lived immediately north of the Caspian Sea) buried in about 5650–5555 BC, and a male from the early Neolithic Cardial culture, buried in about 5178–5066 BC at the Els Trocs site in the Pyrenees (modern Aragon, Spain)|
|Found in Villabruna 1, who lived circa 12,000 years BC (north east Italy). Villabruna 1 belonged to the Epigravettian culture|
|Branches to |
|Branches to |
|The most common European haplogroup, greatly increasing in frequency on an east to west gradient|
|Branches to |
|Branches to |
|Branches to |
- U106 Germanic. Z381 branches to
- Z301. My maternal grandfather William F. Drueke has this DNA: U106, Z301, L48, Z9, Z30, Z2, Z7, CTS10893, A6389, BY3323. My great great great grandfather Johann Drüecke was born in 1743 in Elspe, Westphalia, Germany. Westphalia is part of Old Saxony. Based on my maternal cousin Paul Drueke's Y-DNA test at Family tree DNA. Most of Paul's Y-DNA matches at FTDNA are from England. The Saxons invaded and settled the south and east of England from the early 5th century up to the Norman conquest in 1066.
- Z156, Z306, Z304, DF98, S18823, S22069, S8350, Y17443, BY3238. House of Wettin: King George V, Edward VII, George VI
- P312 ↓
|P312 is the most common haplogroup across much of Western Europe. See Family Tree DNA: R-P312 Project. Branches to |
- DF27 Gallic & Iberian. My wife Marilyn's father has this DNA: DF27, Y5058/A641, Y5061, BY61861 (178 AD), BY105120. Her great grandfather Edmond Carroll was born in 1835 in Stonepark, County, Limerick, Ireland. Based on my wife Marilyn's second cousin, once removed, Michael Patrick Carroll's Y-DNA test at Family Tree DNA. Michael matches men named Ryan, O'Dwyer, Lee/Leary, Gorman, and Kennedy, as well as Carroll. According to ancient pedigrees, these men descend from Breassal Breac who lived in Leinster around 200 or 100 BC. They settled in the 13th or 14th century in County Tipperary and County Limerick
- U152 Italo-Celtic
- Z290 ↓ Atlantic Celtic
|Branches to |
- L21 ↓ Atlantic Celtic
|Named in 2005 by Thomas Krahn in honor of the late Leo Little. Atlantic Celtic. Born at the beginning of the Bronze Age. In their 2011 book The Scots, A Genetic Journey, Alistair Moffat and James F. Wilson say L21 "could be said to be the most emphatic signal of the Celtic language speakers of the British Isles. It is found in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland and it is almost certainly characteristic of those farming communities who may have spoken early forms of Celtic languages in the centuries around 2,000 BC." Family Tree DNA: L21 Project. Branches to |
- DF13 ↓ Atlantic Celtic
|Named in 2011 by an anonymous member of the DNA-Forums.org genetic genealogy community. Named S521 by ScotlandsDNA and CTS241 by Chris Tyler-Smith. There are many branches and subbranches of DF13, some of which are:|
- M222 Northwest Irish (Niall of the Nine Hostages). My wife Marilyn's great grandfather Daniel McDonald has this DNA: M222, S660, S588, S603, FGC23592 (676 AD), BY18200. Her great great grandfather, Daniel McDonald was born in 1813 in Ireland or Scotland. Based on my wife Marilyn's third cousin, once removed, Michael McDonnel's Y-DNA test at Family Tree DNA. Michael's FGC23592 DNA is associated with a group called Cenel Moain (S603, FGC23592), a subset of Cenel Eoghain (S660, S588), a subset of Northwest Irish (M222).
Northwest Irish (Niall) and Clan Colla had previously been thought by some to be descended from a common ancestor.
- FGC6545 Hy Maine Kelly. Hy Maine and Clan Colla had previously been thought by some to be descended from a common ancestor, but they have different SNPs. There are Kellys with Clan Colla DNA, but they are likely from another Kelly pedigree called Clankelly.
- L1335 Scottish Cluster
- L746 High Stewards. This family started out in Scotland when the first of the line, Walter Fitz Alan (1110-1177) was appointed High Steward of Scotland under King David I. His descendants became Hereditary High Stewards of Scotland. The two most important branches of the family are the Scottish Royal Stewarts, represented by descendants of King Robert II of Scotland (grandson of Alexander Stewart); and the Stewarts of Lennox, with some Scottish descendant lines plus the English Royal Stuarts, who descend from Alexander Stewart's younger son, Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl. See Stewart FTDNA Project
- FGC9795 Airghialla 2, Manus McGuires. Manus McGuires had once been thought to be part of Clan Colla, but they have different SNPs. Joseph A. Donohoe V (1941-2011) called them Airghialla 2 and compared their DNA with Clan Colla, which he called Airghialla 1. See Two McGuire Septs
- 193 Scottish Borders. Many surnames with this marker are associated geographically with the western "Border Region" of Scotland. A few other surnames have a Highland association.
- L226 Brian Boru. Our daughter-in-law's father has L226 DNA. Family genealogist Maureen O'Brien traces their heritage back to Michael O'Brien, who was born in Doneraile in 1815. Doneraile is in County Cork, just south of the border with County Limerick. The Y-chromosome DNA of Maureen's father Leo matches men with a set of surnames that correspond to a set of surnames descended from the Dalcassian tribe, which is traced back to 4th century Ireland. The most illustrious Dalcassian was Brian Boru, Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig, who was born around 941 AD in County Clare, Ireland. He was killed at the Battle of Clontarf on April 23, 1014. See L226 Brian Boru DNA and Irish Type III DNA.
- L159 Irish Sea. Appears to be associated with the Kings of Leinster and Diarmait Mac Murchada; Irish Gaels belonging to the Laigin. It can be found in the coastal areas of the Irish Sea including the Isle of Man and the Hebrides, as well as Norway, western and southern Scotland, northern and southern England, northwest France, and northern Denmark.
- CTS4466 South Irish. South Irish, Brian Boru, and Ely Carroll had previously been thought by some as descended from a common ancestor, Olioll Olum. DNA testing has proven otherwise, as they all have different SNPs. DNA testing shows that two other historical pedigrees, Eoghanachta and Brian Boru, are not related to Ely Carroll.
- DF21. ↓ About 10% of all L21 men.
|Named in 2011 by an anonymous member of the DNA-Forums.org genetic genealogy community. Named S192 by ScotlandsDNA. See Family Tree DNA: DF21 Project. There are four branches from DF21:|
- Z30233, which includes L1403 Seven Septs of Laois, FGC5780 Cain/Byrne.
Includes Rathlin 1 Man: A December 2015 study by scientists at Queens University Belfast and Trinity College Dublin identified the DF21 SNP in the bones of a man uncovered in a Bronze Age cist to the rear of McCuaig's Bar in Church Bay on Rathlin Island. Church Bay is connected by a 25-minute ferry ride with Ballycastle in the Glens of Antrim. Rathlin Island is 11 miles from the coast of the Mull of Kintyre in Scotland. His bones were carbon-dated back to 2025-1885 BC.
- FGC3213, which includes L362 McCarthy, S5456 Galway Bay and S190 Little Scottish Cluster (from which Alex Williamson descends)
- S5488, which includes Z16281 Ely Carroll. There were several illustrious descendants in colonial America. Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832) signed the Declaration of Independence. Daniel Carroll of Duddington (1764-1849) built a home for himself in 1791 which was torn down by Pierre L’Enfant to build the U.S. Capitol. Daniel Carroll I I of Rock Creek (1730-1796) signed both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. John Carroll, S.J. (1735-1815) was the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States and founded Georgetown University and Georgetown Preparatory School. Testers include a descendant of Charles Carroll of Carrollton and a descendant of Daniel Carroll of Duddington.
- S971, which is mostly Clan Colla ↓
|Named by ScotlandsDNA in 2013. The developed branch of S971 so far is Z16267 ↓
|There are three branches from Z16267:|
- BY23573 shared by McRory from Scotland and Woolley
- PH129/S7858 shared by Fergusons from Ireland and Scotland
- F24434 ↓
|The year 1750 is my estimate. Found by FTDNA in 2019. There are two branches from F24434:|
- FGC23381 shared by Rudelli from France, Harbour from England, and McDonalds from Scotland
- Z3000 shared by Colla descendants and their cousins, by far the largest branch ↓
|Named by Mike Walsh/ScotlandsDNA in 2013. Z3000/S951 is one of a large block of 26 SNPs that occurred over about 2,000 years with no known branching. Shared by all Collas who have tested. See Family Tree DNA: Clan Colla 425 null project. See Alex Williamson's
As a result of STR mutations during this long stem of SNPs, four key STR markers can be used to predict the Z3000 SNP:
There are five branches from Z3000:
- Z16270 shared by: Carroll 1, Casey, Paden, O'Guin, Larkin 1, Lawler, Roberts, Roderick, Adams, Calkins, Morris, Godwin, Davie, McGuire 2, Almond
- Z29586 shared by: Baty, Owens, McGuire 4
- BY103190 shared by Hones, Conley
- Unnamed SNP shared by Kelly 2
- Z3006 ↓
There are four branches from Z3006:|
- BY3160 shared by Smith 2, McKenna 3
- A14073 shared by Cain, Troy, Brady, Cusick
- Unnamed SNP shared by Morrison
- Z3004/Z3008, about two-thirds of Z3006 ↓
|Probably the SNP of the Three Collas: Origin of the Three Collas. The Three Collas lived in the timeframe of Z3004/Z3008 man. They fought in the Battle of Emain Macha in 331 AD. |
This DNA is shared by testers with ancestral names that match names in ancient pedigrees of men descended from three Colla brothers who lived in the 4th century in a part of northern Ireland called Airghialla or Oriel. In 1998, Donald M. Schlegel, suggested in his article "The Origin of the Three Collas and the Fall of Emain" in the Clogher Record that the Three Collas were Romanized Britons from the Trinovantes, a celtic tribe from Colchester, the oldest recorded Roman town in England. They received military training from the Romans and eventually went to Ireland as mercenaries in the service of the King of Ireland.
There are no branches yet identified with Aedh Colla Menn descendants.
There are several branches of Muredach Colla da Crioch descendants:
There are several branches of Carrell Colla Uais descendants:
- Z16274 shared by: McMahon 1, Callen, Curby, Hughes 1, Carroll 2, Hughes 2, Kern, Murphy, Clarke, McQuillan, Gartland, Kelly 1.
Two McMahon 1 testers trace their ancestry back to Faolan MacMathghamhna and Colla da Crioch
- FGC41930 shared by Duffy
- BY39825 shared by McDonald 3
- Likely A14079 shared by: Hart, Monaghan, Shannon, Higgins, Collins, Glennon
- Likely F4142 shared by MacDougall, White
- Likely BY3163 shared by: McKenna 4, McKenna 1, Neal, Cooley, McGinnis, McGroder, McKenna 2, McDonald 4, Farrell
- S953 ↓
Named by ScotlandsDNA in 2013. There are three branches from S953: |
- Y9053 shared by Řsterud, Moen
- BY2869 shared by Connally
- ZZ13 ↓
There are four branches from ZZ13:|
- A945 shared by McGuire
- BY24138 shared by Boylan, Donohoe
- FT14481 ↓
|The year 650 is my estimate. Named by FTDNA in 2019. There are three branches from FT14481:|
- A938 shared by McDonald 1, McDonald 2, King, Martin.
Five McDonald 1 testers trace their ancestry back to Lt. Brian McDonald (MacDonnell), McDonnell of Antrim, Somerled, and Colla Uais
- BY39827 shared by McAuley, Beeman
- BY103517 shared by Larkin
- BY3164 shared by Biggins/Beggan ↓
|Named by FTDNA in 2015 when it was found to be shared by Bigham N86783 and Biggins 127469. It is now considered the DNA of the 12 testers in the Biggins subgroup. Four have done Big Y and were found to have the BY3164 SNP. The subgroup has unique STRs: 413b=24 and 561=16.
The surnames of the 12 are all derived from beag, the Irish word for little. Surnames were adopted in Ireland for the first time in the 11th and 12th centuries. Historian Peadar Livingstone reported the name Beggan in southern Co. Fermanagh and northern Co. Monaghan. See Biggins/Beggan Irish Roots. Family Tree DNA: Biggins Project.|
The 12 testers are:
- Beaghen N34030. Ancestor Francis Beaghen was born in 1850 in Ireland and emigrated in 1860 to Brooklyn, New York
- Beggan 166169. Ancestor was born in Clones, Ireland, near the Fermanagh/Monaghan border. Tester Gerard died in Carrickmacross, County Monaghan, in 2018.
- Beggan 190653. Ancestor John Beggan was born in County Fermanagh. Tester Adrian grew up in Meath, lives in Dublin.
- Biggin 559385. Ancestor Thomas Biggin was born in Castle Carey, Somerset, England, and emigrated to Australia aboard the James T Foord in November 1849
- Biggins 629651, BY3164. Ancestor James Biggins was born in 1790 in County Monaghan and emigrated to Western Scotland sometime in the 1820s or 1830s, settling first in Renfrewshire, then Galston, Ayrshire, then Lanarkshire
- Bigham 91030. Ancestor emigrated to Fairfield, Pennsylvania, before the Revolutionary War. The Griffiths Survey of 1848-64 shows 99 of 120 Bighams in County Down, Ireland
- Bigham N86783, BY3164. Ancestor Hugh Bigham was born in 1750 in Ireland and emigrated to Lebanon, Pennsylvania, before the Revolutionary War
- Little 69648. Ancestor Patrick Beggan was born in 1779 in County Cavan. Tester John's great grandfather changed his name from Beggan to Little. John's father James Little was born in 1898 and nicknamed "Jimmy Beggins" as a child. He emigrated to Ayrshire, Scotland. John himself was born and raised in Ayrshire, emigrated to Canada for fourteen years, and then to Perth, Australia
- Little 896940
- Little 906555
- Biggins 146867, BY3164: Ancestor James Biggins was born in 1822 in County Monaghan and lived across the road from my ancestor Patrick Biggins in Will County, Illinois
- Biggins 127469, BY3164, BY116798 ↓ - me
|I, Peter Biggins, FTDNA kit 127469, do not share this STR with the other three who have done Big Y so far, but I may share it with one or more of other eight non-Big Y testers listed above in the BY3164 Biggins subgroup. This SNP, and the all that came before it, are probably shared by my sons and their sons, my brothers and their sons, and our male Biggins cousins and their sons. My known Biggins ancestry is:|
- Patrick Biggins, born in Ulster in 1807, emigrated to Ontario, Canada, then Illinois, USA
- Philip Leslie Biggins, born in Illinois in 1841
- Philip Leslie Biggins, born in Illinois in 1877
- John Alfred Biggins, born in Illinois in 1910. Also lived in Michigan, Missouri, Florida, and California
- Peter Alfred Biggins, born in Michigan in 1939. Also lived in Illinois, Missouri, Texas, and Connecticut
Pedigree of Peter Biggins, 300 AD to 700 AD
We share the early part of the ancient pedigree of four McDonalds: 43 Generations: Colla to McDonald, They trace their ancestry back to Colla Uais. The pedigree goes back to around 300 AD. Around 700 AD, the ancestors of Biggins/Beggan branched off.
Any genealogy that goes back 16 centuries is not going to be as solid as one that goes back two or three centuries. Nevertheless, we think the attempt is worthwhile. You can judge for yourself. The source for the pedigree is The Ancestors of the McDonalds of Somerset, by Donald M. Schlegel, 1998. Sources consulted by Schlegel include: Book of Ballymote (ca 1400), Book of Lecan (Early 1400s), Nat. Lib. Scot. MS 72.1.1 (1467), Monro (1549), Harleian MS 1425/190-191 (ca 1620), Annals of Clan Macnoise (1627), Geoffrey Keating (ca 1634), O'Clery (mid 1600s), and Book of Clanranald (ca 1715).
- Carrell Colla Uais, brother of Muredach Colla da Chrioch and Aedh Colla Menn; about the year 392, Muredach Tirech, king of the Connachtach, sent the Collas against his ancient enemies, the Ulaid; over an extended period of perhaps eighty years, the Collas and their descendants fought several battles against the Ulaid and took other lands from them, while remaining subject to the descendants of Muredach Tirech
- Erc: his son. Had two brothers: 1. Brian; 2. Fiachra Tort; called "ri sliab a tuaid," king of the
northern mountain; had three sons: Carthend, Fiachra, and Amalgad
- Carthend: his son; Carthend was given land east of the present city of Derry on the east side of the Foyle, the valley of
the River Faughan, then called Dulo Ocheni but later named Tir-Keeran (Carthend's land) after him,
and still today bearing that name as a barony; subject to the Kings of Ailech, who were descendants of Eoghan and Conal
Gulban, the sons of Niall of the Nine Hostages; had six sons by one or more wives and another six by bondswomen
- Muredach, his son
- Amalgad, his son
- Aed Guaire, his son
- Colman Muccaid, his son
- Fergus: his son; died in 668
- Conal, his son
- Niad, his son