About PetersPioneersDeep Ancestry of Peter Biggins, FTDNA Kit #127469

By Peter Biggins

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Genetic genealogy can tell us about the deep ancestry of our ancestors and, in some case, which tribe or sept our ancestors came from. This story addresses the deep ancestry of Peter Biggins through the use of Y-chromosome DNA, tested by Family Tree DNA. Y-DNA is passed down from father to son, much like surnames. By testing a living male, we can learn about the deep ancestry of his paternal line. A version of this page was published in the June 2016 Newsletter of the Middlesex Genealogical Society (reprint: HTML, PDF).

Definitions

  • DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical consisting of a sequence of hundreds of millions of nucleotides found in the nuclei of cells. It contains the genetic information about an individual and is shaped like a double-stranded helix.
  • SNP. A single nucleotide polymorphism, a mutation in the DNA that happens when a single nucleotide (A, T, G, or C) in the genome sequence is altered. A person has many SNPs that together create a unique DNA pattern for that individual. Family Tree DNA offers Big Y, which tests a large portion of the Y chromosome and identifies SNPs that have occurred down to the present time. Many SNPs have multiple names, e. g., P312, S116, and PF6547 are the same SNP. SNPs occur randomly. The number of SNPs can vary a lot by tester. On average over a large population for a long time period, Big Y SNPs occur every 120 years.
  • STR. An STR is a Short Tandem Repeat, or count of repeats at a physical location on the chromosome.

Peter's Patrilineal Pedigree - 6,000 Years

Following is a brief version of a more detailed pedigree shown later.

Ancestor SNPs Generations Timeframe Place Testers
P312 Man 2 8 4120 BC to 3880 BC Europe 2,342
L21 Man 7 28 3880 BC to 3040 BC Western Europe 1,646
DF13 Man 2 8 3040 BC to 2800 BC Western Europe 1,547
DF21 Man 1 4 2800 BC to 2680 BC Isles 261
S971 Man 3 12 2680 BC to 2320 BC Isles 85
Z3000 Man 20 80 2320 BC to 80 AD Isles 80
Z3006 Man 1 4 80 AD to 200 AD Isles 60
Z3004 Man 2 8 200 AD to 440 AD Ulster 56
S953 Man 1 4 440 AD to 560 AD Ulster 23
BY516 Man 4 16 560 AD to 1040 AD Ulster 14
BY3164 Man 5 20 1040 AD to 1640 AD Ulster 2
17705431-C-T Man 1 18 1640 AD to the Present Ulster or USA 1

My Y-chromosome ancestry is represented by 12 male ancestors who experienced Y-chromosome mutations (SNPs) over the last 6,000 years. All SNPs can be found in Alex Williamson's Big Tree. As shown in the more detailed table below, there are 49 men with SNPs altogether, but the other 37 cannot be distinguished from the 12 in terms of historical order and so are grouped with them.

The chronological order of the 12 ancestors is determined by the number of descendants (testers), ranging from 2,342 for P312 Man down to 1 (me) for 17705431-C-T Man. The descendants of each successive ancestor are a subset of his predecessor.

Although the historical order of SNPs within the groups is unknown, the historical order of the groups is known. If certain testers have a group of SNPs but only some of those testers have another group of SNPs, the latter group of SNPs must come after the former group of SNPs.

The timeframe of the SNP groups is based in large part on carbon dating and Y-DNA testing of Rathlin 1 Man, whose bones were found in 2006 behind McCuaig's Bar on Rathlin Island offshore of Ballycastle in the Glens of Antrim. The SNP timeframes could be off by a few hundred years, plus or minus, because SNPs occur randomly but are assumed here to occur evenly over the years.

Ancestors Defined by SNPs from
Alex Williamson's
Big Tree
Real Rough Timeframe and Place Testers
March
2016
Comments
P312 Man
P312 S116 PF6547
Z1904 CTS12684 PF6548
4120 BC to
3880 BC
Europe
2,342 My ancestor, call him P312 Man, who lived around 5,880-6,120 years ago (about 196-204 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name P312. Z1904 appeared in a somewhat earlier or later generation. I share P312 Man with 2,341 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

P312 is the most common SNP across much of Western Europe.
L21 Man
L21 S145 M529
L459
S245 Z245
S461 Z290
Z260
FGC3218 S552 Y2598
Z21145
3880 BC to
3040 BC
Western Europe
1,646 My ancestor, call him L21 Man, who lived around 5,040-5,880 years ago (about 168-196 generations ago), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified in 2005 and given the name L21. Six other SNPs appeared in somewhat earlier and later generations. I share L21 Man with 1,645 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

L21 is sometimes referred to as the "Atlantic Celtic" SNP. In their 2011 book The Scots, A Genetic Journey, Alistair Moffat and James F. Wilson say L21 "could be said to be the most emphatic signal of the Celtic language speakers of the British Isles. It is found in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland and it is almost certainly characteristic of those farming communities who may have spoken early forms of Celtic languages in the centuries around 2,000 BC."
DF13 Man
CTS241 DF13 S521
CTS8221 Z2542
3040 BC to
2800 BC
Western Europe
1,547 My ancestor, call him DF13 Man, who lived around 4,800-5,040 years ago (about 160-168 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name DF13. Z2542 appeared in a somewhat earlier or later generation. I share DF13 Man with 1,546 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.
DF21 Man
DF21 S192
2800 BC to
2680 BC
Isles
261 My ancestor, call him DF21 Man, who lived around 4,680-4,800 years ago (about 156-160 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified in 2010 and given the name DF21. I share DF21 Man with 260 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

Rathlin 1 Man: A December 2015 study by scientists at Queens University Belfast and Trinity College Dublin identified the DF21 SNP in the bones of a man uncovered in a Bronze Age cist to the rear of McCuaig's Bar in Church Bay on Rathlin Island. Church Bay is connected by a 25-minute ferry ride with Ballycastle in the Glens of Antrim. Rathlin Island is 11 miles from the coast of the Mull of Kintyre in Scotland. His bones were carbon-dated back to 2025-1885 BC. Rathlin 1 was negative for S971 but positive for Z30233. Alex Williamson has identified five more private "Big Y" SNPs downstream of DF21 and Z30233. This suggests that DF21 occurred around 2700 BC.

There are four branches from DF21 Man:
  • S971
  • Z30233, which includes Rathlin 1 Man, L1403 Seven Septs of Laois, FGC5780 Cain/Byrne
  • FGC3213, which includes S5456 Galway Bay and S190 Little Scottish Cluster (from which Alex Williamson descends)
  • S5488, which includes Z16281 Ely Carroll, L130 Duffy/Corcoran and perhaps Clan Chattan
S971 Man
S971 Z3017
Z16267
• 6134591-T-C
2680 BC to
2320 BC
Isles
85 My ancestor, call him S971 Man, who lived around 4,320-4,680 years ago (about 144-156 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name S971. Two other SNPs appeared in somewhat earlier and later generations. I share S971 Man with 84 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

There are three branches from S971 Man:
  • Z3000 shared by Colla descendants and their cousins
  • Z29584 shared by Rudelli from France and Harbour from England
  • S7860 shared by Fergusons from Ireland
Z3000 Man
A54 S954 Z3003
A55 S957 Z3005
Z16268
A57 S964 Z3010
A58 S966 Z3011
A59 S967 Z3012
A60 Z3013
A61 S968 Z3014
A62 Z3015
A63 Z3016
Z3018
Y9438 Z16269
S3862 Z3020
Z2993
A50 S951 Z3000
A51 Z3001
Z3002
Z3019
S960 Z3007
Z16271
2320 BC to
80 AD
Isles
80 My ancestor, call him Z3000 Man, who lived around 1,920-4,320 years ago (about 64-144 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name Z3000. Nineteen other SNPs appeared in earlier and later generations. I share Z3000 Man with 79 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

So far, none of the men in these 80 generations had brothers whose current-day descendants have done Big Y. This long stem is a fairly unusual situation.

As a result of mutations during this long stem of 80 generations, four key STR markers identify descendants of Z3000 man without SNPs. The STR markers are:
  • 511=9
  • 425=0
  • 505=9
  • 441=12
There are four branches from Z3000 Man:
  • Z3006 shared by Colla descendants: Smith 2, McMahon 1, Callen, Curby, Hughes 1, Carroll 2, Hughes 2, Kern, Murphy, Clarke, McQuillan, Gartland, McDonald 1, McDonald 2, King, McGuire 1, Biggins, Beeman, ěsterud, Moen, Connally, Hart, McKenna, Elliott, Neal, Osbourne, Collins, Glennon, Duffy, White, McMahon 2, McDonald 3, Cain, Morrison
  • Three SNPs shared by descendants of Colla cousins (note):
    • Z16270 shared by: Carroll 1, Paden, Peoples, O'Guin, Calkins, Johnson, Robertson, Henretty, Henretty, Lawler, Roberts, Rhydderch, Adams, McVarry
    • Z29586 shared by: Baty, Owens, McGuire 4
    • 7513772-A-G by: Kelly
    Note: Descendants of Colla cousins may be descendants of the Three Collas if the actual timeframe is earlier than assumed. Some of the names are indicated as descendants of the Three Collas in ancient pedigrees.
Z3006 Man
S959 Z3006
80 AD to
200 AD
Isles
60 My ancestor, call him Z3006 Man, who lived around 1,800-1,920 years ago (about 60-64 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name Z3006. I share Z3006 Man with 60 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

The father of the Three Collas was probably Z3004 Man, his son, his grandson, or his great grandson.

There are four branches from Z3006 Man:
  • Z3004 shared by Colla descendants: McMahon 1, Callen, Curby, Hughes 1, Carroll 2, Hughes 2, Kern, Murphy, Clarke, McQuillan, Gartland, McDonald 1, McDonald 2, King, McGuire 1, Biggins, Beeman, ěsterud, Moen, Connally, Hart, McKenna, Elliott, Neal, Osbourne, Collins, Glennon, Duffy, White, McMahon 2, McDonald 3
  • BY3157 shared by Colla descendants: Smith 2
  • 21570586-T-A Colla descendant: Cain
  • 22457909-G-A Colla descendant: Morrison
Z3004 Man
S956 Z3004
S962 Z3008
200 AD to
440 AD
Ulster
56 My ancestor, call him Z3004 Man, who lived around 1,560-1,800 years ago (about 52-60 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name Z3004. Z3008 appeared in a somewhat earlier or later generation. I share Z3004 Man with 55 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

The Three Collas lived in the timeframe of Z3004 man. They fought in the Battle of Emain Macha in 331 AD.

This DNA is shared by testers with ancestral names that match names in ancient pedigrees of men descended from three Colla brothers who lived in the 4th-century in a part of northern Ireland called Airghialla or Oriel. In 1998, Donald M. Schlegel, suggested in his article "The Origin of the Three Collas and the Fall of Emain" in the Clogher Record that the Three Collas were Romanized Britons from the Trinovantes, a celtic tribe from Colchester, the oldest recorded Roman town in England. They received military training from the Romans and eventually went to Ireland as mercenaries in the service of the King of Ireland.

There are two branches of Carrell Colla Uais descendants from Z3004 Man:
  • S953 shared by McDonald 1, McDonald 2, King, McGuire 1, Biggins, Beeman, ěsterud, Moen, Connally, Hart.
    McDonald 133546 traces his ancestry back to Colla Uais
  • F4142 shared by White who matches MacDougalls
There are six branches of Muredach Colla da Crioch descendants from Z3004 Man:
  • Z16274 shared by: McMahon 1, Callen, Curby, Hughes 1, Carroll 2, Hughes 2, Kern, Murphy, Clarke, McQuillan, Gartland.
    McMahon 145687 traces his ancestry back to Colla da Crioch
  • A7923 shared by: McKenna, Elliott, Neal, Osbourne
  • FGC2071 shared by: Collins, Glennon (also Higgins, Monaghan, Shannon)
  • 9838484-G-A: Duffy
  • 14027639-G-A: McMahon 2
  • 8666002-G-T: McDonald 3 (McDonnell of Clankelly?)
There are no branches yet identified with Aedh Colla Menn descendants.
S953 Man
S953
440 AD to
560 AD
Ulster
23 My ancestor, call him S953 Man, who lived around 1,440-1,560 years ago (about 48-52 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name S953. I share S953 Man with 22 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

There are four branches from S953:
  • BY516, shared by Colla descendants with the names of McDonald 1, McDonald 2, King, McGuire 1, Biggins, Beeman
  • Y9435, shared by Colla descendants with the names of ěsterud, Moen
  • BY2869, shared by Colla descendants with the name of Connally,
  • S3859, shared by Colla descendants with the name of Hart
BY516 Man
BY516
BY517
ZZ2
ZZ13
560 AD to
1040 AD
Ulster
14 My ancestor, call him BY516 Man, who lived around 960-1,440 years ago (about 32-48 generations ago), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name BY516. Three other SNPs appeared in somewhat earlier and later generations. I share BY516 Man with 13 testers whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016.

There are three branches from these SNPs:
  • BY3164, shared by Colla descendants with the name of Biggins
  • ZZ14, shared by Colla descendants with the names of McDonald 1, McDonald 2, King, McGuire 1. One of the McDonald 1 men can trace his ancestry back to Colla Uais, who lived in the 4th century. He is Frank Everett McDonald, Jr., a retired dairy farmer from the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. He was born there in 1926. His FTDNA kit is #133546.
  • 7357618-T-A, shared by Colla descendants with the name of Beeman
BY3164 Man
BY3164
• 9646350-G-C
BY3167
BY3169
BY3181
1040 AD to
1640 AD
Ulster
2 My ancestor, call him BY3164 Man, who lived around 360-960 years ago (about 12-32 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified just a few years ago and given the name BY3164. Four other SNPs appeared in somewhat earlier and later generations. I, Peter Biggins, FTDNA kit 127469, share BY3164 Man with one tester whose results were on on Alex Williamson's Big Tree in March 2016. That one tester is Mark Bigham, FTDNA kit N86783. Eight nontesters share a unique STR marker and should share some or all of these markers:
  • Biggins 127469, BY3164
  • Bigham N86783, BY3164
  • Beaghen N34030
  • Beggan 166169
  • Beggan 190653
  • Biggins 146867
  • Bigham 91030
  • Little 69648
These names all are derived from beag, the Irish word for little. Surnames were adopted in Ireland for the first time in the 11th and 12th centuries. Historian Peadar Livingstone reported these names in southern Co. Fermanagh and northern Co. Monaghan.
17705431-C-T Man
• 17705431-C-T
1640 AD to
the Present
Ulster or USA
1 My ancestor, call him 17705431-C-T Man, who lived around 360 years ago or less (about 12 generations), had a mutation in his Y-chromosome identified in 2015. I, Peter Biggins, FTDNA kit 127469, do not share this ancestor with Mark Bigham, but I may share it with one or more of six nontesters listed above with a similar name. This SNP, and the all that came before it, are shared by my sons. All that came before this SNP, and probably this one, are shared by my brothers and their sons and our male Biggins cousins. Our known Biggins ancestry is: Any one may be 17705431-C-T Man, or 17705431-C-T Man may have benn born before them in Ireland.

Descendants of "17705431-C-T Man"

Seven Collas
Seven descendants of "17705431-C-T Man" on Cape Cod in August 2010.
Five Collas
Five descendants of "17705431-C-T Man" in Vermont in August 2014.
Nine Collas
Nine descendants of "17705431-C-T Man" in Southern Maryland in October 2014.
Two Collas
Two descendants of "17705431-C-T Man" in Darien on Christmas 2015.
Six Collas
Six descendants of "17705431-C-T Man" in Darien just before Thanksgiving 2016.

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