About PetersPioneersFive Mile River

By Peter Biggins

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All rivers go to the sea,
yet never does the sea become full.
To the place where they go,
the rivers keep on going.
- Ecclesiastes 1:7

Red Mill on the Five Mile River

In 1989, Peter and Marilyn Carroll Biggins and family purchased a house newly-built by St. John Associates on an acre of land in Darien, Connecticut, at 230 Old Kings Highway North, on the east side of the old mill run for the Red Mill at Five Mile River. This was the first house ever built on this site. The only previous structures were a gristmill (the Red Mill) and sawmill on the west side of the mill run between 1692 and 1908. The street was originally part of the old Boston Post Road between New York and Boston. Darien was called Middlesex, part of Stamford, until 1820.

1789 Colles Atlas of Red Mill
Mile 48. From 1789 Colles atlas, Map 4, page 7, showing the Old Post Road, now Old Kings Highway North, the Red Mill ( Grist *), the Five Mile River (southbound squiggly arrow), and 48 miles from Federal Hall. Present day streets: Richards Avenue to the north (A to Canaan) and Rowayton Avenue and Raymond Street to the south.
1867 Map of Darien
From the 1867 Map of Darien, showing the Grist and Saw Mills at the intersection of the Five Mile River and the Old Post Road, now Old Kings Highway North.
230 Old Kings Highway North
230 Old Kings Highway North, Darien, Connecticut. March 2006.
Canaan Parish
Map showing how Canaan Parish was created from Stamford and Norwalk in 1731.Source: Portrait of New Canaan: The History of a Connecticut Town, by Mary Louise King, 1981, p. 26.

Walking Down the Five Mile River

In 1997, Peter had an annual physical and the doctor suggested he exercise regularly. As a result, Peter started walking four miles a day down to Long Island Sound. His normal route is down Raymond Street and Five Mile River Road to the mail boxes near the end of Five Mile River Road, and back. Initially, the walk took an hour. After 20 years, however, it was up to an hour and 15 minutes.

Walking the same route around sunrise day after day, you get to learn something about the route and know some of the residents along the way. And you wonder about the part of the river you don't see. In 2020, he decided to start this research on the river.

You also learn that the most common birdsong on the last two miles of the river is that of the tufted titmouse (Baeolophous bicolor), official bird of PetersPioneers. The song is a whistled peter-peter-peter-pete.

Nearby Rivers

The Five Mile River is one of a number of small coastal rivers of varying length that flow under the Post Road (US-1), the New Haven Railroad, the Merritt Parkway (CT-15), and the Connecticut Turnpike (I-95) into Long Island Sound in southwest Connecticut. Rivers within fives miles east and west are:

  • Rippowam (Mill) River, 17 miles in New Canaan and Stamford ending in Stamford Harbor. Rolling Mill; Saw Mill and Wire Mill north of Cedar Heights Road, off Wire Mill Road
  • Noroton River, 9.5 miles in New Canaan and along the Darien/Stamford border, ending in the Cove. Cove Mill on Stamford side of Holly Pond and Cove Harbor; Liquorice Mill, north of I-95; Grist Mill and Saw Mill north of Jelliff Mill Road in New Canaan
  • Goodwives River, 6 miles in Darien. Grist Mill, at Rings End. Joined by Stony Brook
  • Five Mile River, 12 miles in New York, New Canaan, Norwalk, and the Norwalk/Darien border, ending in Rowayton Harbor. Fourteen old mills and factories
  • Norwalk River, 23 miles in Ridgefield, Brannchville, Georgetown, Wilton, and Norwalk, ending in Norwalk Harbor. Multiple mills in Georgetown. Winnipauk Mills in Norwalk. Joined by Silvermine River north of Broad Street at Deering Pond
  • Saugatuck River, 24 miles from Sugar Hollow Pond in southwest Danbury to Redding, Weston, and Westport.

What's in a Name?

Mary Louise King says that the Five Mile River was so-named because of its distance from the Saugatuck River (Portrait of New Canaan: The History of a Connecticut Town,, 1981, p. 8). The Five Mile River is five miles west of the Saugatuck River, measured along Long Island Sound. But, it is also five miles east of the Rippowam (Mill) River.

Frank Raymond dispels the myth that the original name of the river was Five Mill River. He says the river was referred to as the Five Mill River in 1656, but there were no mills on the river at that time. It was obviously a misspelling (Rowayton on the Half Shell, 1990, p. 16).

Five Mile River

The Five Mile River watershed consists of a network of small streams and wetlands buffered by meadows and undeveloped forest. Drinking water is drawn from the New Canaan Reservoir, which marks the downstream extent of the headwater region. Farther downstream, the river passes through residential neighborhoods and dense commercial centers in New Canaan, Norwalk, and Darien. The river forms the border between Darien and Norwalk south of the Post Road.

The headwaters of the Five Mile River are about 300 yards north of the Connecticut/New York border (Puddin Hill Road) and 40 yards west of Smith Ridge Road, in the Vista section of Lewisboro, New York.

There are 20 crossings of the Five Mile River:

  • I-95, the longest north-south interstae highway, running from Maine to Florida
  • the Merritt Parkway, and expressway limited to cars
  • U.S. 1, a federal highway running from maine to Florida
  • four Connecticut state highways
  • a commuter railroad
  • the old Post Road
  • various smaller streets
There are also two bridges that cross the river just to get to the other side: one to a parking lot and the other to a house. From 1895 to 1933, a trolley crossed the river at White Bridge.

The estuary, or mouth, of the river is at Long Island Sound, about 12 miles from the headwaters in New York State. You can easily see the North Shore of Long Island, about seven miles away. In the estuary, oyster farming was a major industry, peaking in the early 20th century. There were two dramatic, rocky projections - one on Butler's Island, and the other slightly upriver, formerly known as the Loading Rock. It was used for loading cargo sloops in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Loading Rock as well as other local coastal scenes were favorites of John Frederick Kensett (1816-1872). The Metropolitan Museum holds several paintings of the Five Mile River in its Kensett collection. See Marian Castelli's Loading Rock.

Anne Morrow Lindbergh lived at the end of Five Mile River Road until 1999.

Below is a table showing points of interest on the Five Mile River, using Google Maps and 1867 maps of New Canaan, Norwalk, and Darien. Twenty crossings (grey) were found along the way on present-day maps. Fourteen old mills and factories (bold) were drawing water power from the river on the 1867 maps. Elevation is 565 feet above sea level at the headwaters, down to sea level at Long Islad Sound (Topozone).

West Side of the River - Right Bank
River

East Side of the River - Left Bank
Scenic Drive,
Lewisboro, New York
Headwaters - 565 feet NY-123 - Smith Ridge Road,
Lewisboro, New York
Puddin Hill Road, New York/Connecticut border since 1731 - mile 0.1
Lukes Wood Road,
New Canaan
River CT-123 - Smith Ridge Road, New Canaan
Michigan Road, New Canaan - mile 1.2
Lukes Wood Road,
CT-124 Oenoke Ridge Road,
New Canaan
River
New Canaan Reservoir - 449 feet
CT-123 - Smith Ridge Road
Summersweet Lane,
Indian Rock Road, New Canaan
Country Club Road, New Canaan - mile 3.0
CT-124 Oenoke Ridge Road,
New Canaan
River Lambert Road, New Canaan
Lambert Road, New Canaan - mile 3.2
Lambert Road,
CT-124 Oenoke Ridge Road,
Parade Hill Road,
Riverbank Court, New Canaan
Old Saw Mill
River Brookwood Lane,
CT-123 - Smith Ridge Road,
Glen Drive, New Canaan
CT-123 - Smith Ridge Road, New Canaan - mile 4.3
CT-123 - New Norwalk Road, New Canaan River River Road,
New Canaan
Old Grist Mill
CT-123 - New Norwalk Road and Locust Avenue and Brushy Ridge Road, New Canaan - mile 4.6
Summer Street,
Main Street,
New Canaan
River CT-123 - New Norwalk Road,
Old Kings Highway,
New Canaan
Brook Street, New Canaan - mile 4.7
Summer Street,
Main Street,
New Canaan
Old Saw Mill
River CT-123 - New Norwalk Road,
Old Kings Highway,
New Canaan
CT-106 - East Avenue, New Canaan - mile 5.0
Millport Avenue,
Main Street,
New Canaan
Old Saw Mill, Grist Mill
River,
Mill Pond - 200 feet
Wastewater Treatment Plant,
CT-123 - New Norwalk Road,
Old Kings Highway,
New Canaan
Lakeview Avenue, New Canaan - mile 5.2
Millport Avenue,
Main Street,
New Canaan
River Lakeview Cemetery
CT-123 - New Norwalk Road,
Old Kings Highway,
New Canaan
Old Norwalk Road, New Canaan - mile 5.7
White Oak Shade Road,
New Canaan
River Marvin Ridge Road,
New Canaan
Hidden Brook
Nursery Road, New Canaan - mile 6.4
White Oak Shade Road,
New Canaan
River Marvin Ridge Road,
New Canaan
CT-15 - Merritt Parkway, New Canaan - mile 6.5
Built in 1938
White Oak Shade Road,
White Oak Shade Lane, New Canaan
West Norwalk Road, Norwalk
River Marvin Ridge Road,
New Canaan
Weed Avenue, Grey Squirrel Drive,
Meeting Grove Lane, Norwalk
Old Rock Lane, Norwalk - mile 6.8
Old Saw Mill & Axe Helve Factory
Old Sash & Blind Factory
West Norwalk Road,
West Lake Court, Norwalk
River,
Millard Pond,
Florsheim Pond
Princes Pine Road,
Pin Oak Lane,
Alewives Road,
Fillow Street, Norwalk
Old Feed Mill, Saw Mill
Fillow Street, Norwalk - mile 7.8
West Norwalk Road
Libby Road,
Watering Lane,
Morehouse Lane, Norwalk
River Geneva Road, Bonnybrook Road and Trail,
Holy Ghost Fathers (Hanford) Brook
St. John Cemetery (Marilyn Biggins 1940-2020)
Norwalk Community College
Richards Avenue, Norwalk
West Cedar Street, Norwalk - mile 8.8
Present Stone Arch Bridge built in 1910
Adjacent foot bridge
West Norwalk Road, Riverwalk Lane,
bridge to parking lot,
covered foot bridge at River Park
(former Old MacDonald’s Farm),
Norwalk
River Richards Avenue, Beechwood Road,
private bridge (2016) at Mallards Landing
Norwalk
US-1 - Post Road, Darien - Connecticut Avenue, Norwalk - mile 9.4
Replaced Old Post Road in 1807
US-1 runs 2,369 miles from Key West to the Canadian border
Darien/Norwalk border, the Perambulation Line, proceeded 37.5 degrees northwest from bridge after 1807
I-95 northbound Exit 13 ramp, Darien, goes under the I-95 bridge alongside the River River
Darien/Norwalk border after 1807
DoubleTree Hotel, Costco
Richards Avenue, Norwalk
I-95 (6 lanes) - mile 9.5
Darien Bypass built in 1952-54
Runs 1,908 miles from Miami to the Canadian border
Red Mill Lane, Darien

Old Grist Mill, Saw Mill
River
Darien/Norwalk border after 1807
Old Mill Pond - 40 feet
Richards Avenue,
Shadybrook Lane,
Norwalk
Old Kings Highway North, Darien - Flax Hill Road, Norwalk (Old Post Road - Country Road in Colonial days) - mile 9.8
The 1789 Colles atlas shows the river is 48 miles from Federal Hall
George Washington travelled through here in 1756, 1775-76, and 1789, as Colonel, General, and President
Darien/Norwalk border, the Perambulation Line, proceeded 37.5 degrees northwest from bridge from 1686 to 1807
Bridge rebuilt in 1994
Darien Land Trust: Traendly Flood Plains
Raymond Street,
Musket Lane, Red Rose Circle,
Chasmers Pond Road,
Mount Pleasant, Darien
River
Darien/Norwalk border
Chasmers Pond
Cottontail Road, Rowayton Avenue,
Brookside/Five Mile River Cemetery
(Rev. Moses Mather 1719-1896),
Keelers Brook,
Pheasant Lane, Rowayton Court, Norwalk
New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad - mile 10.7
Built in 1848
Raymond Street, Darien

Old Grist Mill
River
Darien/Norwalk border
Old Feed Mill and Sash, Door & Blind Factory
Rowayton Avenue, Carolyn Court (bridge)
McKendry Court, Jacob Street, Norwalk
White Bridge. CT-136 - Tokeneke Road, Darien - Cudlipp Street, Norwalk - mile 11.2
From 1895 to 1933, a trolley line crossed on a trestle on its way between Darien and Rowayton
Five Mile River Road,
Loading Rock, Contentment/Butlers Island,
Darien
Mouth of the River
Long Island Sound Inlet
Darien/Norwalk border
Five Mile River Harbor
Sea Level - Tidal
Cudlipp Street,
Rowayton Avenue, Pinkney Park,
Rowayton Historical Society
Shakespeare on the Sound
Rowayton village, Norwalk
Long Island Sound - mile 12.2
⇐ Rippowam (Mill) River is five miles west   -   Saugatuck River is five miles east ⇒
Greens Ledge Light, built in 1902, one mile from shore (Tide Times)
6.6 miles across the Sound to Eatons Neck Point on the North Shore of Long Island
Notes:
1. The land north of the New York/Connecticut border was part of Cpnnecticut prior to 1731.
2. New Canaan was part of Stamford and Norwalk prior to 1801
3. Darien was part of Stamford prior to 1820.

Headwaters

egret
1867 New Canaan Map. The headwaters of the Five Mile River are about 300 yards north of the Connecticut/New York border (present-day Puddin Hill Road) and 40 yards west of present-day Smith Ridge Road, in the Vista section of Lewisboro, New York. To the left of the river is present-day W Road and Lake Woods Road. To the right of the river is Smith Ridge Road.
Five Mile River
2020 Google Map. The headwaters of the Five Mile River are about 300 yards north of the Connecticut/New York border (present-day Puddin Hill Road) and 40 yards west of present-day Smith Ridge Road, in the Vista section of Lewisboro, New York. To the left of the river is present-day W Road and Lake Woods Road. To the right of the river is Smith Ridge Road.
Five Mile River
1867 New Canaan Map. The headwaters of the Five Mile River are about 300 yards north of the Connecticut/New York border (present-day Puddin Hill Road) and 40 yards west of present-day Smith Ridge Road, in the Vista section of Lewisboro, New York. To the left of the river is present-day Oenoke Ridge Road, south of J. Selleck, and Lake Woods Road. To the right of the river is Smith Ridge Road. The crossroads from north top south are Michigan Road, Summersweet Lane in Pleasant Valley, and present-day Country Club Road. The Summersweet Lane crossing was replace by the New Canaan Reservoir.

Mills in New Canaan

Saw and grist mills
1867 New Canaan Map. Two mills on the Five Mile River in New Canaan at the foot of present-day Parade Hill Road. A saw mill was north of the Smith Ridge Road bridge. A grist mill was to the south of that bridge. Present-day Forest Street is west of the river. River Street is east.
saw mills and a grist mill
1867 New Canaan Map. Three mills on the Five Mile River in New Canaan, The cross street is present-day East Avenue. To the north is a saw mill. To the south is a saw mill and a grist mill on present-day Mill Pond.

Mills in West Norwalk

Mills and factories
1867 Norwlk Map. Saw mill & axe helve factory, sash & blind factory and saw and feed mills, on the Five Mile River in Norwalk, south of present-day Old Rock Lane and north of present-day Fillow Street.

Old Red Mill in Darien

1789 Colles Atlas of Red Mill

From 1789 Colles atlas, Map 4, page 7, showing the Old Post Road, now Old Kings Highway North, the Red Mill ( Grist *), the Five Mile River (southbound squiggly arrow), and 48 miles from Federal Hall. Present day streets: Richards Avenue to the north (A to Canaan) and Rowayton Avenue and Raymond Street to the south.

George Washington is known to have crossed the Five Mile River when he traveled on the Old Post Road in Middlesex (Darien) in 1756, 1775-76, and 1789, as Colonel, General, and President.

See: Red Mill on the Old Post Road

Saw and grist mills
1867 Darien Map. Saw and grist mills on the Five Mile River in the Five Mile School Ditrict of Darien, on the present-day Old Kings Highway North (Old Post Road).
Saw and grist mills
1867 Norwalk Map. Five Mile River, on the present-day Flax Hill Road (Old Post Road).
Old Red Mill
1894 picture of the Old Red Mill, Darien, Conn. From the Norwalk side of the Five Mile River, the old gravel Post Road (now Old Kings Highway North) crosses an a-frame bridge over the river and winds past the grist mill up the hill toward Raymond Street. There is an early utility pole at the far left. To the left of the mill (across the mill run) is a the miller's house, with a picket fence. Between the utility pole and the bridge is the mill run flowing back into the Five Mile River. See: Red Mill on the Old Post Road
egret
Egret on the mill pond of the Old Red Mill, summer 2020. Photo by Anthony Zangrillo.
geese
Canada geese family on the mill pond of the Old Red Mill, spring 2020. Photo by Anthony Zangrillo.
turkey
Wild turkey overlooking the Five Mile River, with photos of grist mill and saw mill on wall, October 2020. Photo by Peter Biggins.

Mills at Chasmer's Pond in Rowayton

Feed mill and sash, door & blind factory
1867 Norwalk Map. Feed mill and sash, door & blind factory on the Five Mile River in South Five Mile River section of Norwalk, on the present-day Rowayton Avenue, south of the New Haven Railroad.
Railroad crossing the Five Mile River
New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad crossing the Five Mile River in the 1880s. The falls at Chasmer's pond dam are visible under the bridge. Source: postcard at the Norwalk Public Library.

White Bridge

Grist mill
1867 Darien Map. Grist mill on the Five Mile River on the present-day Tokeneke Road at White Bridge.
Falls on the Five Mile River north of White Bridge
Falls on the Five Mile River north of White Bridge. Source: postcard at the Norwalk Public Library.
Tokeneke Trolley
Open-sided car of the Norwalk Tramway Line that ran between Darien and Norwalk, crossing the Five Mile River at White Bridge from 1893 to 1933. Source: The Story of Darien, Connecticut, by Kenneth M. Reiss, 2009, p. 192.

Middle and South Five Mile River in Norwalk

Rowayton
1867 Norwalk Map. The area south of West Norwalk and north of Rowayton is called Middle Five Mile River. Flax Hill Road is called the Old Post Road. The new Post Road is called Turn Pike Road.
Rowayton
1867 Norwalk Map. Rowayton is called South Five Mile River. The Five Mile River is on the left. Wilson Cove is on the right.

Rowayton

The Five Mile River harbor
The Five Mile River harbor looking north with sailboats and steamboats at docks. Lobster pots are piled in sailboats and on the pier. There are boys in rowboat at right. Source: postcard at the Norwalk Public Library.
Packet Day at Five Mile River
WPA mural "Packet Day at Five Mile River" by George Avison, 1937. Restored circa 1986. Located at the Rowayton Library. Packet sloop "Chief" loading produce for the new York market in the Five Mile River at Rowayton. Source: Rowayton Historical Society.

Five Mile River Road in Darien

Tokeneke Trolley
The start of Five Mile River Road from Tokeneke Road. The Five Mile River curves off to the left. Old Farm Rod branches off center left. From photo taken in 1890. Source: The Story of Darien, Connecticut, by Kenneth M. Reiss, 2009, p. 30.
Five Mile River Road
1867 Darien Map. Five Mile River Road, just west of the Five Mile River. Contentment Island, incluiding the house of Vincent Colyer on the highest point on the island, where John Frederick Kensett lived and painted scenes across the mouth of the Five Mile River.
Following is information from The U.S. Census of 1870 that matches up with houses on part of the 1867 map of Darien shown on the left, which includes Five Mile River Road and Contentment Island. Shown is name, age, occupation, value of real estate, and state where the person was born. Not shown below are spouses and non-working children. There are 9 oystermen, 6 farmers, 4 house carpenters, 3 ship carpenters, 1 shipwright, 2 clerks, and 1 Indian agent

1870 U.S. Census, Darien, Connecticut, page 32
  • Stephen Raymonf, 61, farmer, $10,000, Connecticut
1870 U.S. Census, Darien, Connecticut, pages 29-31
  • Mary Selleck, 78, $8,000, Connecticut
  • William S. Selleck, 55, farmer, Connecticut
  • Alanson Williamson, 55, ship carpenter, $2,000, New York
  • Satt Williamson, 21, house carpenter, New York
  • Andreus Millspaugh, 31, house carpenter, New York
  • Benjamin Williamson, 18, clerk, New York
  • Stephen Ferris, 87, farmer, $12,000, Connecticut
  • John Ferris, 65, farmer, Connecticut
  • Wm. S. Walmsley, 48, farmer, $8,000, Connecticut
  • Stephen E. Walmsley, 26, farmer, Connecticut
  • Hiram G. Taylor, 45, oysterman, Connecticut
  • Hiram B. Taylor, 22, oysterman, $2,000, Connecticut

  • Olever Cook, 45, oysterman, $3,500, Connecticut
  • Stephen Cook, 19, oysterman, Connecticut
  • Edward Lowndes, 52, oysterman, $2,000, New York
  • Charles Lowndes, 45, oysterman, $5,000, New York
  • Wm. B. Delemater, 70, shipwright, $1,600, New York
  • Augustus Thomes, 52, clerk or agent, $2,500, Maine
  • Gardner F. Thomes, 22, house carpenter, Conneticut

  • William Hoyt, 41, house carpenter, $2000, Conneticut
  • Frank Williamson, 37, oysterman, $2,000, New York
  • Henry T. Cole, 62, ship carpenter, $2,000, New Hampshire
  • Dexter K. Cole, 31, oysterman, $2,000, New York
  • John H. Cole, 29, oysterman, New Hampshire
  • Hickson Williamson, 64, ship carpenter, $3,000, New York
1870 U.S. Census, Darien, Connecticut, page 47
  • Vincent Colyer, 45, Indian agent, $4,000, New York
Houses
Houses on the southern half of Five Mile River Road viewed from southeast of the turnaround. High tide. Circa 1900. Source: Michael Cattano.
John Stobart
"Five Mile River, Rowayton, 1920" by the noted marine artist John Stobart. Oil on canvas, 1986. This view looks southeast from Darien towards Rowayton and Long Island Sound. Oyster boats are plying their trade, catching the tide on a late morning in the early fall. This image appears on the inside front and back covers of Rowayton on the Half Shell by Frank Raymond, 1990. See Kensington-Stobart Gallery.
Sunrise on the Five Mile River
Sunrise over Five Mile River harbor. High tide. November 2019. Photo by Gayle Campbell.

Paintings by by John Frederick Kensett

Long Island Sound at Darien
"Old Pine, Darien, Connecticut” by John Frederick Kensett (1816-1872). From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York. Painted from the southeast shore near the artist’s studio on Contentment Island. Visible in the painting is the profile of Roton Point, with Pine Point beyond. Kensett built a studio on the high southeastern bluff of Contentment Island, overlooking the Fish Islands and Long Island Sound; it was a short walk from the house. See John Kensett and the Connecticut Shore.
Long Island Sound at Darien
"Study on Long Island Sound near Darien, CT” by John Frederick Kensett (1816-1872). In the collection of the Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, but sold in 2003. Painted from a lower elevation, on the southern shore of Contenment Island, looking toward the low sandy spit at the western end of Sheffield Island. See John Kensett and the Connecticut Shore.

Aerial Views of the Mouth of the Five Mile River

Roton Point Park
Northwesterly aerial photo of Roton Point Park (1880-1941) on Long Island Sound in the foreground and the Five Mile River harbor in the background. The southern half of Five Mile River Road runs along the far right side of the river. High tide. Circa 1930. Source: Michael Cattano.
Drone view
Southerly drone photo of the Five Mile River and the southern half of Five Mile River Road. The greens Ledge Light and Long Island can be seen in the background. High tide.

Google Map of the Mouth of the Five Mile River, Greens Ledge Light, and Long Island

Greens Ledge Light Map
Google map of Greens Ledge Light, built in 1902. One mile south of the mouth of the Five Mile River and 5.6 miles north of Eatons Neck Point on the North Shore of Long Island.
Greens Ledge Light
Greens Ledge Light. Legend has it that Greens Ledge was named after a pirate Green, who sailed with the infamous Captain Kidd. When Green was captured by authorities of the day, he was reportedly executed and his body fastened to the ledge in chains as a dire warning to others thinking of entering the buccaneering trade. Years later, a lighthouse would be established on the ledge as a warning to vessels seeking to enter Norwalk Harbor. See Lighthousefriends.

Five Mile River Watershed Based Plan

Five Mile River
Map of of the Five Mile River. Source: Five Mile River Watershed Based Plan, The South Western Regional Planning Agency, 2012.

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